QUESTION: Is ibadah Qurban wajib? Is it the child’s responsibility to do it for her father should she find out that he has never done one for himself? Plus, being an adopted child/convert, an Aqiqah was not done for him also. What loss/sins to Muslims who did not afford or manage to do neither? –Anonymous, Singapore
ANSWER: The ruling pertaining to the act of kurban/aqiqah is sunnah , that is a Recommended act unless the doer makes a vow. From here we can understand that if someone does not perform them even knowingly/intentionally will not be sinful.
It is recommended in Islam to perform the kurban/aqiqah at least once in a lifetime. As for those who have not performed kurban or aqiqah, they can do themselves.
As for the person who does not have the ability to perform any one of them, they are excused from this recommendation.
A person can make the intention to do kurban for a living person if given permission by him/her. It is highly encouraged for children to perform kurban on behalf of their parents if they knew that they have not performed it.
As for performing kurban for the dead or non-muslims, in the Shafiite school of thought, it is not permitted and is considered void. If the deceased (muslim) wrote a will before he/she passes away , then it is permissible to perform the kurban for him/her. Imam Nawawi mentioned in Minhaj Talibin:
ولا تضحية عن الغير بغير إذنه، ولا عن ميت إن لم يوص بها
“It is not permissible to perform the kurban for someone else except with his permission. It is also not permissible to perform the kurban for the deceased unless he wrote a will for his inheritors to do so.”
Source: This is mentioned by Ibn Hajar AlHAitami in in his book namely Tuhfatul muhtaj.
Contributor: Ustaz Anwar Hussain